The Solution to the Afghan Conflict and the Formation of the New Government
In order to resolve the conflict within the country and reach a lasting peace we have no option but to have all parties involved in the conflict agree to the following principles:
1) The withdrawal of all foreign troops from Afghanistan.
2) The formation of a transitional government represented by individuals accepted to all, the characteristics of which would be as follows: non-coalition, united and uniform, its authority should not be distributed between political parties or ethnic factions; its main task is the peaceful transfer of power from the current government to the future political order, Its central members do not have the right to participate in elections and to support any political faction or an election campaign, and their term of office is about one year.
3) The formation of a new election commission, comprising of reputable and impartial individuals who are acceptable to all.
4) Conducting transparent and fair elections, as per the new system agreed upon by all and in accordance with Islamic guidelines.
The Formation of a Transitional Government:
Every influential stakeholder faction in the peace process proposes 10 to 20 individuals that are acceptable to all sides. These individuals would have to meet the following criteria:
1) They should not be associated with any foreign country.
2) They would not have taken part in civil wars nor be accused of collaborating in the occupation of Afghanistan.
3) They are not charged with war crimes, corruption, embezzlement, land grabbing or affiliation with anti-religious groups.
4) They should not have been prominent members of the government during the occupation. They should be reputable and have a clean history.
5) They have the necessary religious understanding and knowledge, adhere to religious guidelines and have the necessary work and administrative experience.
This list of candidates will be handed to the High Council of Governance and the selection of the President of the transitional government, its cabinet members, governors and ambassadors will be done by the council.
The High Council of Governance:
The High Council of Governance will be the supreme decision-making authority on all matters of national interest during the transitional period. It will monitor the workings of the transitional government which will be executing its decisions.
The council will include the leaders of influential and stakeholder political parties that are parties to the negotiation process. The President of the transitional government will also be a member of this council. The chairmanship of this council will be up to the discretion of the council.
In order to have a parliament that represents the whole nation, prevent tyranny and autocracy, ensure social justice so that all tribes and clans co-exist amicably and are represented proportionally in the houses, we have to change the current system from its market-like nature where members and votes are sold. This can be achieved through the introduction of a new electoral system that guarantees the following:
1) The current electoral system is dysfunctional and outdated, it is similar to a game of gambling where the winner takes all. Those who vote for a losing candidate or in constituencies where they are ethnic minorities fail to have a representative in parliament. This leads to the formation of a parliament dominated by political and ethnic minorities. Such a supreme national decision-making authority should not be controlled by such minorities.
2) No eligible voter will be denied their right to suffrage.
3) All Afghans within the country and outside it would be able to participate in the elections and they would not be required to travel to a specific constituency to vote.
4) One election and one vote will decide the President, the members of parliament, the members of the provincial and district councils.
5) The elections should be held in a way that enables afghans to form large national parties. It should help transform the current tribalism to idealistic nationalism and lead to the strengthening of national unity and the provision of social justice. These goals can be achieved through Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems. The execution and manner of the election can be left to the discretion of the election commission that will be comprised of impartial and professional figures.
6) All houses would be comprised of elected individuals with no selected members.
Loya Jirga – the Ultimate Representation of the Will of the People
Matters of national interest such as the drafting and ratification of the constitution, deciding the system of the future government, the structure of security and armed forces, the formation of political parties and their legal responsibilities, civil and social rights of citizens, domestic and foreign policies of the state and the review of international treaties and agreements will be decided by the Loya Jira. The members of which will be:
1) Members of The House Of Representatives (250 members)
2) Heads of Provincial Councils (34 members)
3) Heads of District Councils (364 members)
Considering the economic situation of the country and to avoid organizational complexity and unnecessary expenditures, we should aim to have a limited cabinet, fewer ministries and two elected councils:The House of Representatives and the Loya Jirga (national assembly ). All unnecessary bodies such as advisories should be dissolved.
It needs to be kept in mind that the formation of a coalition government and an agreement to it is not only impractical but it is also impossible to expect parties that have sent the past few decades at war with each other to work under one establishment. There is no mechanism to determine the share of every group and individual within such a system. It is also impractical to expect the Taliban and the opposition parties to settle for introducing a few ministers, governors, ambassadors and members of parliament and form a coalition government with the current administration. Neither the Taliban nor the opposition would agree to such a coalition. The formation of a non-coalition government comprising of non-controversial individuals is the only viable alternative.
Prominent and influential personalities and political parties should not chase seats within a temporary and transitional government that will last for at most a year. They will have to wait for will of the people and transparent elections to decide the status and share of every side. Prominent and influential individuals will have to conduct their politics and enter the political order through political parties. They should use the transitional government to organize themselves in the ranks of worthy political parties, and through that find a dignified and worthy position in the government to come. This way, we can rid the country of dirty politics and put an end to shameful dealings. We have seen in practice what bad consequences these deals have for the country. We have seen the bad fate that has befallen such approaches as it sparked bloody wars between different factions of political groups reducing them into dozens of small, severed pieces factions that became embroiled in internal strife. All groups and individuals that entered coalition governments through political parties eventually faced bad consequences.
All other controversial issues needing deliberation will be delegated to the High Council of Governance.
For upcoming negotiations, all Afghan delegations beside agreeing to a comprehensive proposal, should form consensus on the following matters as wel:
Demand foreign stakeholder states to pledge the following to the Afghan people and the international community:
1) To cease all unwarranted interference in Afghanistan’s internal affairs. This would include discontinuing support for the war in the shape of backing for specific military groups or sending weapons and ammunition to the country.
2) Supporting the inter-Afghan agreement for conflict resolution and future political order.
3) Forever refraining from using Afghanistan as a ground for their illegitimate political, military and economic rivalries. Afghanistan will not be a stage for their proxy wars.
4) Their relations with Afghanistan should be mutually beneficial, friendly and constructive as per international norms. They would always recognise and form relations with those who represent the majority will of the people and the state.
5) Refuse to harbour opponents of the legitimate government of Afghanistan, individuals accused of war crimes, embezzlement, and looting of national assets that are being prosecuted by the country's court. This would include individuals who exited the country with the capital they looted and transferred abroad and their extradition back to Afghanistan.